Free Albanian Grammar

Albanian Adjectives

Learn Albanian Adjectives with these useful sources along with a course about Adjectives, colors, forms, and styles… to improve your Albanian grammar. Focus your attention on the category and find the pattern that occurs when the phrase and word change positions. You should also take a look at the rest of our other trainings on Learn Albanian phrases.

Since Albanian Adjectives are part of everyday conversation, learning their structure is essential. Your proficiency in the Albanian language will improve the more you practice it. In order to understand the role of Adjectives within Albanian grammar, we must first understand what their function is. An Albanian adjective is a word that describes or changes another person or thing in a sentence

Grammar Tips:

While in English an adjective does not modify when the noun changes, in Albanian an adjective should agree the the noun in number and gender of it. For instance:

Masculine to feminine gender:

Ky është qeni im i vogël (This is my little dog) it becomes:
Kjo është pula ime e vogël (This is my little hen)

So we have the change of demonstrative pronouns “ky” – this (masc.) into  “kjo” – this (fem.), and from the possessive pronouns “im” – my (masc.) into: “ime” – my (fem.) in singular.
As you can see from the illustration above, the adjective comes after the noun and also requires the same gender with the noun (fem.)

Singular to Plural number form:

Kjo është shtëpia ime e bardhë (this is my white-colored house) it becomes:
Këto janë shtëpitë e mia të bardha (these are my white-colored houses).

As you can see from the illustration, the adjective arrives after the noun and also requires the plural form.

English Adjectives      Albanian Adjectives
Adjectives  Mbiemra
 a white car  një makinë e bardhë
 a high tree   një pemë e lartë
 an old book   një libër i vjetër
 the old  roof   çatia e vjetër
 a pretty girl    një vajzë e bukur

 

The Adjectives in Albanian have a sensible structure, as you can see from the illustration above. Look at the Albanian Adjectives above and see how they fit into the phrase.
Albanian adjectives are used as modifiers and confirm the gender and number of the noun associated with them, for example:

një dimër i ftohtë (masc. singular)- disa dimra të ftohta (masc. plural)- (a cold winter – (some) cold winters);
një dorë e ftohtë (fem. sing.) – disa dora të ftohta (pl. f.) – (a freezing hand – (some) freezing hands).

The adjectives in Albanian are usually associated with the connective articles, which are identified by the gender and the number of the noun. The connective articles of adjectives are: i / e / të / së and the connective article : / i / is was used before the adjective with a sing. and masc. noun indefinite or definite form, for e.g:

një djalë i mirë – djali i mirë (a good boy – the good boy)

A short list of Adjectives in Albanian.

The following is a list of Albanian adjectives, colors, and sizes. You will be able to add to your Albanian vocabulary a lot of very useful and essential words if you try to remember this list.

 English Adjectives Albanian Adjectives
 colors     ngjyra
 black  i zi (masc); e zezë (fem)
 blue    i kaltër (masc.);  e kaltër (fem.)
 gray  i hirtë (masc.); e hirtë (fem.)
 green i gjelbër (masc.); e gjelbër (fem.)
 orange ngjyrë portokalli
purple  i purpurtë (masc.); e purpurtë (fem.)
 red i kuq (masc); e kuqe (fem)
 white i bardhë (masc); e bardhë (masc)
 yellow i verdhë (masc); e verdhë (fem)

 

Below you can listen some adjectives in Albanian. Enjoy the rest of this lesson!

Albanian Alphabet

The Albanian alphabet, their pronunciation, and the letters.

The Albanian language uses the Latin alphabet. There are 36 letters that correspond to the 36 to 8 sounds (7 vowels and 29 consonants). Seven ones (dh, gj, nj, sh, th, xh, zh) are generally letter mixtures. Each digraph is regarded as one letter (digraphs). Albanian words do not have any silent letters and also all letters are pronounced in just one way, unlike numerous European languages. Therefore, if the letters are pronounced correctly, the words are pronounced correctly.

For spelling capabilities, the consonants are pronounced with a * following, (a sound similar to the e in English word “winter”), bë, cë, dë, etc.

Generally, the Albanian alphabet is made up of the following letters:

Of these, a, e, ë, i, o, u, y are vowels along with the remaining are consonants.
Currently, we will analyze both the vowels and consonants of modern literary Albanian. There are two main dialects in Albanian: Gheg dialect or northern language and Tosk dialect or southern language. Today’s literary Albanian is based on the first dialect. Additionally, the Gheg dialect is spoken in Republic of Albania and among Albanians located outside Albania’s territory (such as in Kosovo, Macedonia, and Montenegro). The Albanian language is called Shqip by its native speakers.

The pronunciation in Albanian

Vowels

Albanian has seven vowels: /i ɛ a ə ɔ y u/.

Phoneme Written as… Pronunciation as in English
/e/ i machine,
/ɛ/ e let
/a/ a father
/ə/ ë alone
/ɔ/ o four
/y/ y similar to French du or German fyhrer
/u/ u doom

Consonants

Below is a table of the Albanian phonemic consonants.

Phoneme Written as… Pronunciation as in English
/p/ p pen
/b/ b bat
/t/ t tan
/d/ d day
/c/ q similar to English hot year
/ɟ/ gj similar to English bridge
/k/ k king
/g/ g go
/ts/ c similar to English cats, Japanese tsuki
/dz/ x similar to English goods
/tʃ/ ç chat
/dʒ/ xh jet
/θ/ th thin
/ð/ dh that
/f/ f far
/v/ v van
/s/ s son
/z/ z zip
/ʃ/ sh shop
/ʒ/ zh similar to English vision, French jour
/h/ h hat
/m/ m man
/n/ n none
/ɲ/ nj similar to English canyon, Spanish ñ
/l/ l law
/j/ j yes
/lˠ/ ll mill
/r/ rr similar to Spanish rosahierro (trilled)
/ɾ/ r similar to Spanish aro, Japanese hara (flapped

Listen to how the letters of the Albanian Alphabet are pronounced in this Albanian lesson.

 

Albanian Articles

We provide some resources on Albanian Articles as well as a course where you can improve your Albanian grammar as well as understanding of Definite and Indefinite Articles. Observe how the phrase changes position and the pattern that occurs each time. Our other training courses on Learn Albanian may also be of interest to you.

It’s very important to learn the Albanian Articles because they form the basis of every day discussion. The more you practice Albanian, the closer you get to mastering it.

In Albanian, the article is a word combined with a noun to indicate what kind of reference the noun creates. Following a noun is usually an article indicating its lexical definiteness. Examples include “the, a, and an”.


Grammar Tips:

Definite Article:

Unlike English, which has only one definite article “the”, Albanian has endings:
i (masc. sing., libri (the book)
u (masc. sing.) shoku (the friend)
a (fem. sing.) vajza (the girl)
ja (fem. sing.) lulja (the flower)

Indefinite Article:

While we have articles: (a / an / some) in English as Indefinite articles, we also have një / disa (ca) in Albanian.
(a, an) are used in English, you need to use (një)  to say the equivalent in Albanian.

Një (masc. sing.), një telefon (a phone)
Një (masc. sing.) një makinë (a car)
Disa/ ca (masc. pl.) disa / ca telefonë (some phones) it’s same here:
disa and ca it has the same meaning (some), and is for both genders in pl.
Disa / ca (fem. pl.) disa /ca makina (some cars)
e.g.: Ca librat janë në shkollë. (Some books are at school)

English Articles   Albanian Articles
 articles  nyjet (e trajta e shquar dhe
e pashquar)
 a / an një
 some disa
 of e

[Masculine gender]

Një shqiptar / Një shok                             shqiptari / shoku
[Singular]   An Albanian / A friend                               The Albanian / The friend

Disa (ca) shqiptar / Disa (ca) shokë          shqiptarët / shokët
[Plural]       [Some Albanians / Some friends]              [Albanians / friends]

[Feminine gender]

Një shqiptare/ Një shoqe                         shqiptarja  / shoqja
[Singular]   An Albanian / A friend                              The Albanian /The friend

Disa(ca)shqiptare /Disa(ca)shoqe             shqiptaret / shoqet
[Plural]      [ Some Albanians /Some friends]              [Albanians / friends]

List of articles in Albanian.

 English  Vocabulary Albanian Vocabulary
a computer një kompjutër
 a bicycle  
një biçikletë
an apple
  një mollë
 some computers  
 disa kompjutra
 some bicycles disa biçikleta
 some apples disa molla
Albanian Prepositions

Prepositions are an integral part of the Albanian language because they are used every day. Exercise makes you more proficient in the Albanian language, so you should work on it more and more. It is important to understand how prepositions are used in Albanian grammar.

Albanian prepositions link nouns, pronouns, and terms with other words. Prepositions present an object, usually a phrase or word, as a part of their meaning. Here are a few examples:

:

 English Prepositions Albanian Prepositions
prepositions  
    parafjalë
 under the car
   nën makinë
outside the house
jashtë shtëpisë
without me
pa mua

The Albanian prepositions follow a logic structure, as you can see in the illustration above. Consider the Albanian prepositions mentioned earlier and how they relate to the rest of the phrase

List of Prepositions in Albanian

A table listing Albanian prepositions can be found below. Using this table to help you learn important and useful Albanian words will help you enhance your vocabulary.

English prepositions  Albanian Prepositions
near afër
 far larg
for   
    për
against  kundër
between midis
beyond   
    përtej
but  por
in
 në
on mbi  
 round   
    përreth
 since  qysh
 until  deri
 as   
 si
Albanian Feminine
 It is essential to know the Albanian feminine because it is used in conversation every day. Practicing Albanian terminology more often will make it easier to perfect it. The Feminine part of the Albanian grammatical structure must be understood first.

It refers to female qualities specifically related to females and ladies, or to things considered feminine. The complement of feminine is masculine.

Here are some grammar tips:

The feminine form of a word that ends with a consonant is formed by adding (e) to the masculine form.

A noun’s gender can be changed only if it represents a profession, nationality or circumstance.

Here are some examples:

English feminine      Albanian feminine
Feminine  Femërore
student  
student (masc.) – studente (fem.)
phycisian   mjek (masc.) – mjeke (fem.)
turist turist (masc.) – turiste (fem.)
 american
amerikan (masc.) – amerikane (fem.)
german gjerman (masc.) – gjermane (fem.)

Note: The pl. fem. nouns have the same ending -e
e.g.: një italiane – disa italiane (an Italian {woman} – some Italian {women}).

Can you tell by the below table whether these objects are feminine or masculine in Albanian? Keeping this list in mind will also help you to add important and useful words to your Albanian vocabulary.

 English vocabulary Albanian vocabulary
 girl     vajzë
 flower  
lule
 train
 tren
 desk  
tavolinë
 wall mur
 door derë
window  
dritare
 restaurant   
restorant
 fork  
pirun
 hat  
kapele

 

Listen to this video lesson below and find which of these Albanian nouns are feminine or masculine.

Albanian Numbers

Learning the Albanian numbers are very essential because its structure is used in every day dialogue. The more you will exercise the subject, the nearer you get to perfecting the Albanian language. But first we need to know what the part of numbers are in the structure of the Albanian grammar.
In Albanian we have cardinal and ordinal numbers.

Grammar Tips:

Cardinal numbers.

It is necessary to memorize each of the numbers from 1 to 10 separately in Albanian.
You will also need to memorize the numbers from 11 to 19. However, numbers from 20 and up-wards are established using the following formula: for example 21, we link 20 + 1 and then we use the article (e) – (and) between them.
For 22=njëzet e dy,  can be established by using 20 + e + 2 while linking them: 25 = njëzet e pesë.

Here are some examples:

English numbers      Albanian number
one  një
two
dy
three
tre
four
katër
five pesë

 

Ordinal numbers.

The ordinal numbers are founded from the respective cardinal numbers, excluding the numeral i parë – first, by adding the connective article i (for the masc.) or e (for the fem.).

For example:
six – gjashtë
sith- i gjashtë, e gjashtë.

Adding the suffix -të, if the cardinal numeral does not end with-të

For example:
two – dy
second- i dytë, e dytë.

also for:
First – i parë – e parë (numri i parë – first number); ( rruga e parë – first street)
Second: i dytë (masc.) – e dytë (fem.)

Ordinal numbers are treated as adjectives. Since they have a number and a gender, they must also agree with noun in number and gender.

English numbers      Albanian number
first  i parë (masc.)
e parë (fem)
second
i dytë (mas.)
e dytë (fem.)
third
i tretë (masc.)
e tretë (fem.)
fourth
i katërt (masc.)
e katërt (fem.)
five i pestë (masc.)
e pestë (fem.)

 

If you want to practice Albanian cardinal numbers, you can watch the video lesson.

In this Albanian video lesson, you will learn how to say the ordinal numbers in Albanian.